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Retained Foreign Body: References

Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Canada continues to lag behind other OECD countries on measures of patient safety. Ottawa, ON: CIHI. 2019a.

Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). OECD Interactive Tool: International Comparisons. Published 2019b.

Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA), Healthcare Insurance Reciprocal of Canada (HIROC). Detailed Analysis. Surgical Safety in Canada: A 10-Year Review of CMPA and HIROC Medico-Legal Data. 2016. 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI). Retained Foreign Object. Published 2016.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI). Surgical error inspires doctor to champion the safety of all patients. Published 2016.

Gawande AA, Studdert DM, Orav EJ, Brennan TA, Zinner MJ. Risk Factors for Retained Instruments and Sponges after Surgery. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(3):229-235. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa021721.

Gentile D. "It felt like I had been stabbed," says patient left with 33-cm metal plate inside after surgery. CBC News. Published June 28, 2017.

Healthcare Insurance Reciprocal of Canada (HIROC). Risk Reference Sheets: Retained Surgical Items. Toronto, ON: HIROC; 2016.

Hôpital Charles LeMoyne. Leading Practices: Surgical Instruments Management Program. Ottawa, ON: Health Standards Organization; 2009.

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). How-to Guide: Prevent Harm from High-Alert Medications. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI); 2012.

Leung W. Canada worse than other wealthy countries in patient safety – including objects left in body after surgery, data show. The Globe and Mail. Published November 7, 2019.

Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. Epidural or Subarachnoid Catheter Shear. Pa Patient Saf Auth. 2009;6(3):84-86. Retrieved from:

Pugel AE, Simianu VV, Flum DR, Patchen Dellinger E. Use of the surgical safety checklist to improve communication and reduce complications. J Infect Public Health. 2015;8(3):219-225. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2015.01.001

The Joint Commission. Preventing unintended retained foreign objects. Sentin Event Alert. 2013;(51).

Weinstein SM, Hagle ME. Plumer's Principles and Practice of Infusion Therapy. Ninth. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.

Retained Foreign Body

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Retained Foreign Body

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